Definition of 疼痛 updated for first time in four decades to make it more inclusive
约翰霍普金斯大学医学院的疼痛专家已加入国际疼痛研究协会（IASP）和世界各地的合作者，对疼痛的定义进行了微妙而重要的更新。"疼痛" for the first time in 40 years. With this change, the experts aim to make 疼痛 diagnosis 和 management more inclusive of all people who experience it.
修改后的定义 发表在2020年9月的期刊上 疼痛.
根据研究人员，新 疼痛 该定义（自1979年以来的首次更新）以一个关键词（以粗体显示）为特色：“与实际或潜在的组织损伤相关或类似的令人不快的感觉和情感体验。”
The phrase is important, say the researchers, because it includes types of 疼痛 not well understood 40 years ago, such as nociplastic—where 疼痛 receptors are stimulated without evidence of the cause, such as with fibromyalgia—and neuropathic 疼痛 caused 通过 a sensitized 要么 maladaptive nervous system, commonly associated with chronic 疼痛 conditions such as persistent 疼痛s after surgery, nerve injuries 和 肢体截肢 (commonly called "phantom limb 疼痛").
修改后的定义 also is more inclusive of people who cannot express their 疼痛 in words. According to Raja, the previous definition used the word "described," which excludes non-verbal behaviors to indicate 疼痛 in animals 和 certain vulnerable individuals.
"Changing this language enables physicians to adequately account for 疼痛 in disempowered 和 neglected populations such as children, the elderly 和 people with disabilities," he says.
更新的定义最终会影响对以下内容的访问 卫生保健，如果由保险提供商采用。 美国疾病控制与预防中心2016年调查 estimates that 20.4% of U.S. adults live with chronic 疼痛 和 approximately 20 million reported that 疼痛 limits the ability to accomplish tasks in their work 和 daily life.
"When 疼痛 affects peoples' function, psyche 和 their social well-being, it needs to be recognized 通过 insurance carriers that dictate who gets care 和 what aspects of their multidisciplinary care are reimbursed," says Raja.
Overall, the IASP task force says the revised definition has provided a starting point to integrate more evidence-based 和 holistic 疼痛 management into medical 和 mental 卫生保健.
“疼痛不能简化为0到10的等级。相反，评估需要着眼于整个人，并考虑其认知，心理和心理因素。 社会因素 that are critical to treating 疼痛," says Raja.